Sunday, December 22, 2013

The Tritsu or Tircul or Pru or Pyu of Burma (Bramah-desh), the Golden Land

We all know that Bamar-asa-Tagaung Ka ( Burmese begins with Abhiraj of Tagaung). But what we did not know was the ancient people of modern Burma was the Pyu or Pru or Tritsu until we read Moore Places of Burma (Moor :    ). The Tritsu belongs to the Sindhu (Indu) Valley civilization of the modern India since the time of the Sarasvati and Purushani rivers flowing into Sindu and the Arabian Sea.
When the mist of antiquity gives place to the light of history, we find the Bharatas, who gave their name to the whole country, settled here. Tradition connects the Bharatas with Bharata, son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala, the subjects of many fables and romances. In the period of the Rigveda; the Bharatas are said to be kindling the sacred fire in the region of the Sarasvati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chitang). In the April hymns Sarasvati is mentioned with Bharati or the glory of the Bharatas. In course of time the Tritsu clan of the Bharatas became paramount and produced the famous conquerors Divodasa and his son Sudas whose exploits are sung in many a hymn of the Rigveda. (Buddha Prakash)
The Pyu or Tritsu of Burma named one river flowing from , The Yamethin The  mountain  hamlet, the middle of the country and throws into bay of mataban near Tha-htone or Sathorn (formerly called Suvana-Buhmi) or Sathorn , “CHITANG” . But now the river is known only  as  Sittaung River  in modern  lower Burma. { We will introduce the Suvana-Buhmi, the city of Mon kingdom in lower Burma, soon.}
According to Buddha Prakash, The Trisu belongs to Bharata(Hindustan so called India). Wikipedia reported as  “One scholar, Buddha Prakash, Professor of History and of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology, Director of the Institute of Indic Studies (1964); in his book Political and Social Movement in Ancient Punjab, states:
The Purus settled between the Asikni and the Parusni, whence they launched their onslaught on the Bharatas, and after the initial rebuff in the Dasarajna War, soon regrouped and resumed their march on the Yamuna and the Sarasvati and subsequently merged with the Bharatas, Some of their off-shoots lingered on in the Punjab and one of their scions played a notable part in the events of the time at Alexander's invitation. They probably survived in the Punjab under the name of Puri, which is a sub-caste of the Kshatriyas.[6]
Refer to Bob Hudson the ancient Pyu city, Halin was dated back to 4,500 years ago. He mentioned as below.(ref: Hudson 2012: A thousand years before Bagan: radiocarbon dates and Myanmar’s ancient Pyu cities.)
An earthenware firing site southwest of the old city walls and salt fields at Halin (Figures 1 &12) is one of a group of mounds of potsherds and ash. Full publication is forthcoming (“Earthenware from a firing site in Myanmar dates to more than 4,500 years ago”, Bob Hudson & Nyein Lwin).
Two more dates for pre-urban Halin, at site HL 30 (Figure 12), show a habitation site  built over a Neolithic cemetery. Sample OZM354, 2660 ± 30 BP, for the lower part of a habitation site which has iron artifacts in its upper layers, calibrates to 900-790 BCE. We should note that the iron objects were a metre above the dated section of the site, and while the stratigraphy shows continuous occupation from 900-790 BCE until the iron was deposited, the carbon date and the iron represent separate instances. Sample OZM353, 2935 ± 30 BP, puts the Neolithic cemetery below the village at 1270-1040 BCE. There is a layer of soil above the cemetery, indicating that the village was established after the cemetery fell into disuse. These dates provide further evidence that human activity and occupation at Halin preceded the urban period.
Therefore we can conclude that the Tritsu or Pru or Pyu are living in the place called Bramah-desh or modern Burma since 1000 to 1500 BC. Now we have to look into the contemporary history of India to correlate the archeological findings of the great archeologists of present days and the records of ancient Vedic and Epic India. Then we may like to refer the following from RC Dutt’s “The Civilization of India”;  Page -15 CHAPTER II Epic Age, circa 1400 to 800 B.C. as follow
Colonisation of the Gangetic valley.In the earliest period of Indian history, which we have called the Vedic Age, we found the Indo-Aryan or Hindus settled on the Indus and its tributaries, and the whole of the Punjab parceled out into small states or principalities ruled by war-like chiefs. All the races spoke the same language, practiced the same religious rites, and worshipped the same “bright gods” of Nature, and were thus held together by strong national ties which served to make them, in spite of their occasional wars, one great confederation of races.

A map of North India in the late Vedic period. (Courtesy of Wikipedia.)
            But the Punjab Hindus were not long content with their dominion over the land of the seven rivers.  Like all young and warlike races, they threw out colonies farther and farther to the east, until the valley of the Ganges, embracing the whole of Northern India, was colonized.  And thus in the second period of Indian history, which we shall call the Epic Age, we find the whole of the fertile country from the Jumna to North Behar occupied by Hindu colonists, excelling their mother-country, the Punjab, in wealth and power, in learning, arts, and civilization.
In comparison of the history of  Burma and that of India contemporaneously we find the fact that the peoples living there both in Burma and India are the same. Can we conclude modern Burma was part of  India, Bhrata or Sindhu (Indu) valley civilization?
As the ancient Tritsu has the technology, especially metallurgy so called Alchemic, ancient blacksmiths and may have foundries. So that they , the Tritsu or Pru or Pyu can cast the bronze  artifact facilitated by the place where they live “Tagaung and Halin was very close to copper deposit of  kyee-ni-taung, Sa-gaing division of modern Burma (Baramah-desh).
The tritsu in Burma were living in all over the country. (Refer E. Moore )
Tagaung is a triple-walled site on the east bank of the Ayeyarwaddy that chronicles
place seven hundred years before the birth of the Buddha Gotama (circa 1300 BC).
Evidence of probable Neolithic and Bronze Age habitation has been documented from
surface finds including a range of stone tools and socketed bronze implements up to
18 cm in length from the village of Kyan Hnyat, 30 km south of Tagaung. (Moore :
Silver tanka of the Pyu kings(Courtesy of the British Museum)
Shrikshetra, Burma (Myanmar)
8th century AD

Indian symbolism reaches Burma
In the eighth century, eastern Burma was ruled by the Pyu peoples, who issued coins with designs derived from those of the kingdom of Arakan to the west. On this example, the obverse (front) of the coin shows a throne tied with royal diadems in the centre and surmounted by flames.
The reverse shows symbols associated with Indian deities and the more ancient Indian Creation myth. The dominant image is the symbol of shrivatsa, representing Shri, the goddess of wealth and good fortune. Inside this symbol is a mountain, representing Shiva, the god of contrasting forces (good and evil; fertility and asceticism). The mountain also represents the earth, rising out of the wavy lines of the ocean below. Above them, the moon (a circle) and sun (a star shape) signify the heavens. On the left is a thunderbolt, emblem of Indra, god of the heavens, and on the right, the conch shell associated with Vishnu, god of creation and preserver of the cosmic system.
From Moore, Elezabeth 
To the north and northwest of Tagaung is copper, gold-rich river sand and iron along the Meza and
jade mines along the Uru.5 Along the Ayeyarwaddy, gold-washing was common in recent years, with
silver mines to the east at Bawdwin and Yadanatheingyi at Namtu around Mogok, and copper and
more gold found along the edge of the Shan Plateau.6 These resources bolstered the trading advantages of
the walled site’s riverside location. East of the walled area, varied ecozones support crops ranging from
edible oils to rice and coriander (see Fig. 2). Winter rice or mayin is grown on the edges of shallow
pools on the shelf between the Ayeyarwaddy and Indaing forest on Thaung Hwet Taung, a range
southeast of Tagaung.

Then modern Burman  casted the very famous, world no 1 bronze bell see

These above mentioned were possible due to the rich resources such as copper, silver, gold, iron and mineral deposits around the Tagaung and Halin region, the technology such as metallurgy and foundries
and human resources, craftsmen and blacksmiths and ultimately the good governess, administration and management of the Burmese kingdom.

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