Tuesday, December 24, 2013


One of the ancient tribes of Burma from the time immemorial was called Thet or Sak or Saka or Sakyan. We have already known that the founding king of Sangassa of Sangaranegara was the Sakyan Prince Abhiraj. They are also related to Scythian, Endo-scythian, Indo-scythian and Getes of the Central Asia in general. However in particular among the ancient tribes of modern Burma they are prominent race till 1000 AD.
After this, Abhiraja, a Sakivamsa Prince, came away to Burma with his army and founded Tagaung or Sankassa, of which he became King. Abhiraja died, and his two sons, Kanrajagyi and Kanrajange shared the kingdom between them, the elder ruling over Dhannavati or Arakan and the younger over Tagaung."(Taw Sein Ko:1913)

The origin of these people are widely known as the Central Asia, central steppes, eastern steppes, and etc. They came into India through the North-Western passes of Himalayan ranges and settled in Sinduvalley, modern Punjab now partly in India and partly in Pakistan. Though there are many texts and documentary evidences available on the webs as well as in all good library of the universities globally, we would refer Taw Sein Ko’s Burmese Sketches. What is the reason? We would touch it soon, later.

India is cut off from the rest of Asia on its three sides by the ocean, and on its northern side the Himalayan range stands as an insurmountable barrier. This range, however, has two sets of opening ; one on the west, and the other on the east.Through the western opening, or, relatively speaking, the north-western passes, invaders have entered India from time immemorial. (Taw Sein Ko:1913)
But the great hitorian of 20th Century Mr. Hervey has a different opinion as follow and we have to explore to fulfil his point of  discussion. And then we convince the readers and scholars and the whole world that there are facts to believed that the Thet are in effect the Sak or T-sak or Sakyan and so on

Houtman mentioned as below as but we would not agree to these due to prevailing facts and figures to follow. ” In this way historians such as Harvey (1925:307, xvii), irritated in their quest for historical facts in indigenous histories, found that ’perhaps as much as half the narrative told us as historical down to the thirteenth century is folk-lore’. History should be about linguistic, geographic, but in particular racial origins and ‘the Burmans are a Mongolian race, yet their traditions, instead of harking back to China, refer to India…the surviving traditions of the Burman are Indian because their own Mongolian traditions died out’ (Harvey 1925-:5).

It is very interesting to know that the one of great linguisticists of the time Mr Beckwith has mentioned recently is under.

The Sal group includes Shafer’s Baric/Benedict’s Bodo-Garo-Konyak groups, plus Jinghpaw (Kachin) and the Sak or Luish group. The subgroup and its name were proposed by Burling (1983). It has some lexical peculiarities not shared with other Tibeto-Burman languages; most languages have some morphology including parts of that reconstructed for Proto-Tibeto-Burman by Wolfenden (1929), but relatively simple tonal systems. Shafer’s Kukish/Benedict’s Kuki-Chin-(Southern) Naga is more distantly linked with Sal, though this also shows some lexical links with Burmese, Pyu appears to belong in the Luish group.  Within the Sal group, the Kuki-Chin language Meithei is the longest-established living literary language.(BECKWITH(2002),

We are surprised that what Mr Taw Sein Ko informed us in 1913 was confirmed by Mr Beckwith in 2002 that the Thet, Kachin, Chin and Burman are from the same ethnological stock.And the Sak are also living in the border of Burma, India and Bangladesh as mentioned by Mr Taw Sein Ko(1913) as:-

This displacement of race by race is but an instance of the Darwinian theory of the '' struggle for existence " and '' the survival of the fittest." The defeated races were either exterminated, enslaved, or made to seek protection in the jungle and mountain fastnesses. During these turmoils, the Tibeto-Burman tribes
would naturally seek the route through the Patkoi hills for egress out of Bengal. Up to this day, there are straggling tribes still to be found m Bengal. These, and the wild tribes inhabiting the eastern spurs of the Himalayas commencing from Nepal down to the Assam side, the Burmans, Chins and Kachins, form but one ethnic stock. (Taw Sein Ko:1913)

There is also addition and information and evidence provided by modern historian like Mr Talukdar.

In Asoka’s time there used to be a friendly relation with yun-nan (China) through Shan states (Myanmar) and the local Buddhist traditions still alive and it seems they belong to the same stock of people, like, Singpho(India), Jampho (China). Khante, Tai-Phake, Nam-Phake, Tai-Khamyang of one group of people. Chakmas (India, Bangladesh)  Daingnak and other denominations in Myanmar of the same stock of people. Some believe Chakmas were in Brahmaputra valley in Assam before their migration to Chittagong Hill Tracks, as their traditional, cultural, physical and linguistic affinities are very common to the Ahom people in Assam. (Talukdar, SP)

Then we are to investigate how close these tribes or races such as Chakmas, Thet or Sak and Jingpho or Jingphaw of Burma. How are the languages related.
Chakma Couple in their tradditional dresses (Source: Chakma internet  website) to be compared with that of Jingpho or Jingphaw below.
Jingpho couple in traditional dresses (Source: Jingpho of Arunachal Pradesh)

The fact is that the Thets or Saks of ancient Burma had been driven away by the new comers to the region as Mr Talukdar put as

They (Shan) over populated the earliest indigenous Shakyans all over. The first came, Tibeto-Burman race, the second came, Mon-Kamar race and the third came, Tai-Chinese race. The word Sakas has been written off in the ever-changing scenario of racial dominance with its neighbours blend with.  Sakyans (Chakmas) belong to Tibeto-Burman race, whose great numbers are seen in this region. T-Sanpay Nago like the name Champak Nagar has been referred in the Hill tracts between Assam and Burma and on the upper Brahamaputra by Lt. R. Wilcox, (1825): which reads as under:(Talukdar,pp:20)

“Old T-Sampaynago Myo is situated at the mouth of a small river flows from Mogout and  Kyatpan, and falls into the Irrawaddy immediately opposite the modern choki of that name. No foreigners says Captain Hannay, except the Chinese are allowed to navigate the Irrawaddy above the choki of Tsanpaynago, situated about seventy miles above Ava, and no native of the country even is permitted to proceed above that post, excepting under a special license from the Government. The trade to the north of Ava is entirely in the hands of Chinese and the individuals of that nation residing at Ava have always been vigilant in trying to prevent any interference with their monopoly.” {Lt. R. Wilcox, (1825)}

It is again very interesting that the Champanaga in Assam and Sanpannago in Burma are strikingly coincident.In the ancient past Burman Kings had time to time conquered Assam and brought back some people from there and also left Burmese Royal guards there to administer while they rule the vassal from remote. One more interesting thing is if the Champaka is the name of the trees and flowers  found  in Burma, India and south-east asia region. There also mythical story related to Burmese King and the Blacksmith and the Talok-Sakar tree)
                                          Champaka Tree blossoming with the floors
                                                                 Champaka Flower

Strategically, there is too much at stake in this trouble torn region till today and their history remains to be written. Their dreadful struggle is at bay long since the moral responsibility of safeguarding the innocent people has become far beyond recognition by international community till today. It makes nothing for rich and powerful communities in the present world this is the chief worry for the indigenous people all is over the world, where it is worthwhile to know something of Chakmas, whose fortune is overcast in darkness. The storm remained unending over their head in the brevity of world life, who are innately born. But under the present nuclear world everything is value based. Therefore, their value must be enshrined in the judgement of Human Rights, so that they play a roll in the progress of human endeavor. (Talukdar, SP)

        Also see more picture of the chakmas who are spreading over few countries around the border of Burma, Bangladesh and India and probably some other parts of the world. And their population is alarmingly shrinking since at the end of the second world war.

The majority of Chakmas are buddhists.

                                      Chakma Girls in Traditional Dresses 

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